这个作业是用Matlab完成近似dP的差分方案、血液流动等问题

AMATH 301 – Spring 2020

Homework #8

(25 points) Problem 1: MATLAB Grader

In order to determine the half-life of Plutonium-239, scientists start with a sample of

approximately 50 kg of Plutonium-239 and measure the remaining amount each year for

40 years. The data is contained in the file Plutonium.mat which is included with the

homework. Plutonium.mat contains two vectors, t and P. The vector t contains the

number of years since the beginning of the experiment, and the vector P contains the

corresponding amounts of Plutonium-239 remaining measured in kg. Let the function

P(t) denote the amount of remaining Plutonium as a function of time.

(a) Use a central difference to approximate the derivative dP

dt at time t = 10. Store the

result in the variable ans1.

(b) Use the second order difference formula that was derived in Activity 8 to approximate

the derivative dP

dt at time t = 0. Store the result in the variable ans2.

(c) Use a second order accurate difference scheme to approximate the derivative dP

dt at

time t = 40. Store the result in the variable ans3.

(d) The decay rate of Plutonium-239 at a time t is given by −

1

P

dP

dt . Use a second order

difference scheme to approximate dP

dt at all 41 times in t. You should use your answers

to (b) and (c) for times t = 0 and t = 40 and a central difference for every other time.

Then use these approximations to estimate the decay rate at all 41 times in t. Create

a 1 × 41 row vector named ans4 with the estimates at each time in chronological

order.

(e) If λ is the average of the decay rates that you found in part (d), then the half-life of

Plutonium-239, denoted by t1/2, is given by the formula

t1/2 =

ln(2)

λ

.

Calculate the half-life, and store it in the variable ans5.

(15 points) Problem 2: MATLAB Grader

Consider blood flow through an artery or vein. For laminar flow (i.e. flow in which the

fluid moves in parallel layers), the velocity of the blood is given by the equation

v(r) = ∆p

4µL

(R

2 − r

2

),

where r is the distance from the center of the blood vessel, R is the radius of the blood

vessel (distance from the center to the wall), ∆p is the change in pressure from the

beginning of the blood vessel to the end, µ is the viscosity of the blood, and L is the

length of the blood vessel. By examining this equation, we can see that the blood moves

fastest in the center of the blood vessel (r = 0) and slowest near the walls (r is close to

R). The volumetric flow rate Q (the volume of fluid that passes through a cross section

per unit time) is given by

Q =

Z R

0

2πrv(r)dr.

If all of the parameters in the function v(r) are known, this is a very easy integral to

evaluate by hand. However, the parameters are often not known. Instead, measurements

of the velocity can be taken at different values of r.

(a) The file BloodFlow.mat contains two vectors, r and v. The vector r contains the

values of r at which measurements were taken, and the vector v contains the corresponding velocities in m/s. Using this data, use the trapezoidal rule to approximate

the volumetric flow rate Q and store the result in the variable ans6.

(b) The cross-sectional area A of the blood vessel can be calculated with the integral

A =

Z R

0

2πrdr.

Approximate this integral using the vector r and the right-sided rectangle rule. Store

the result in the variable ans7.

(c) The mean velocity is the volumetric flow rate Q divided by the cross-sectional area

A. Calculate the mean velocity using your answers to part (a) and (b) and store the

result in the variable ans8.

(10 points) Problem 3: MATLAB Grader

The cardiac output C0 is the volume of blood pumped by the heart per unit time. One

way to measure cardiac output is to inject dye into the right atrium and then measure

the concentration of dye in the blood that is leaving the heart. If A is the amount of

injected dye and c(t) is the concentration of dye as a function of time, then the cardiac

output is

C0 =

A

R T

0

c(t)dt

where T is the final measurement time. The file Dye.mat contains two vectors. The

vector t contains the times (in seconds) at which the dye concentration was measured,

and the vector c contains the concentration of dye in the blood at those times. Use

Simpson’s rule to evaluate the integral in the denominator of the formula above. Store

the answer in the variable ans9. Then use the value A = 3 ml to calculate the cardiac

output in ml/s. Store the result in the variable ans10.

(45 points) Problem 4: Gradescope

Adult Alaskan Malamutes (i.e. Huskies) have weights that are normally distributed with

a mean of 85 pounds and a standard deviation of 5 pounds. To compute the probability

that a randomly selected Malamute has a weight between 76 and 86 pounds, you would

compute the integral

P =

Z 86

76

1

√

50π

e

−(x−85)2/50dx

This integral cannot be evaluated exactly by using any of the methods you learned in

Calculus class so we will evaluate it using numerical integration.

(a) Use the integral function to calculate the “exact” value of P.

(b) Use the left-sided rectangle rule to approximate P with step sizes of

h = 1, 2

−1

, 2

−2

, . . . , 2

−16. Calculate the error for each h by taking the absolute value

of the exact solution minus the approximation. Store the errors in a vector.

(c) Do the same for the right-sided rectangle rule, the midpoint rule, the trapezoidal

rule, and Simpson’s rule.

(d) Plot the errors versus h on a log-log plot. Use a different color and marker type for

each method. Plot a trend line that represents O(h) by plotting c · h versus h on

the log-log plot. Choose the constant c so that the trend line falls near your error

points. Also include trend lines for O(h