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Question 1
Figure 1.1 shows the typical low-level guidance control scheme for mobile robots that are
differentially driven.

(a) Explain the driving mechanism for this kind of mobile robot.
(b) Assume that its left wheel speed is Vl, its right wheel speed is Vr, the robot speed is Vo,
and the wheelbase is W. Give its kinematic equations.
(c) Draw a diagram to show its odometry calculation process.

Question 2
(a) A burst of ultrasound signal travels at 343 m/s and takes 0.008 s to reach and return
from an object. Suppose that a 12-bit counter is available for counting the signal-
travelling time:
(i) What is the range, in metres, of the object?
(ii) Choose the frequency, in kHz, of a pulse generator (square wave) for this counter
so that the maximum range measurement is about 9 m.
(b) Space representation (mapping) is one of the important issues to be addressed in robot
navigation, for the purpose of path planning. The following two figures show maps that
are constructed for the same indoor environment.

(i) What are the names for each of these two maps?
(ii) Describe briefly the basic idea of each of these two maps.

Question 3
(a) Suppose you have been asked to design a service robot for the elderly at home. Answer
the following two questions:
(i) Should your designed robot adapt to its environment? Why?
(ii) Which type of adaptation will be deployed in your design?
(b) Suppose that a mobile robot is equipped with a rotating sonar sensor and odometry. A
Kalman filtering algorithm has been adopted to integrate data from both the ultrasonic
sensor and odometry.
Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2 show two localisation cases where a rectangle is the estimated
location of the robot and a triangle is the real location.